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ITI Literature Update May-June 2010

British Dental Journal

 

Vol. 208 No. 7 (April 2010)

Vol. 208 No. 8 (April 2010)

Vol. 208 No. 9 (May 2010)

Vol. 208 No. 10 (May 2010)

 

Zadik Y, Bechor R, Galor S, Levin L. Periodontal disease might be associated even with impaired fasting

glucose. Br Dent J 2010;208(10):E20.

Medical data from 815 non-diabetic patients were analyzed. Blood samples were taken after a 14-hour fast and the distance from the cemento-enamel junction to  the alveolar bone crest at inter-proximal sites was measured. Alveolar bone loss was found to be more  prevalent in individuals with fasting glucose  ≥ 100 mg/dL than in those with < 100 mg/dL, and  was associated with serum triglycerides  ≥ 200 mg/dL, total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL and LDL-cholesterol of ≥ 130 mg/dL. Periodontal disease may therefore serve as a predictor for future diabetes.

 

Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research

Vol. 12 No. 2 (June 2010)

Carinci F, Brunelli G, Franco M, Viscioni A, Rigo L, Guidi R, Strohmenger L. A retrospective study on 287

implants installed in resorbed maxillae grafted with fresh frozen allogenous bone. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2010;12(2):91-98.

 

This study evaluated 69 patients who received fresh frozen allograft  in the maxilla with subsequent

placement of implants 4-6 months later; a total of 287 implants were placed. The mean follow-up time was 26 months, and the implant survival rate was 98.3% (five implants were  lost); the corresponding success rate was 96% in the first year but only 40% after 4 years due to bone loss. Mean marginal bone resorption after 1 and 4 years was 1.68 ± 0.44 mm and 1.85 ± 0.98 mm, respectively. Better outcomes were observed for female patients, removable dentures and totally edentulous patients.

Cehreli MC, Uysal S, Akca K.  Marginal bone level changes and prosthetic maintenance of mandibular

overdentures supported by  2 implants: a 5-year randomized clinical trial.  Clin Implant Dent Relat Res

2010;12(2):114-121.

 

Two implants (Straumann or Brånemark) were placed in each of 28 patients, with early loading of ball-

retained mandibular overdentures. Prosthetic complications were recorded during the 5-year follow-up

period, and clinical assessments were performed at the end. No implants were lost and the scores for peri-implant inflammation, bleeding and calculus index were similar for both implant types, but mean marginal bone loss was significantly greater around Brånemark implants (1.21 ± 0.1 mm versus 0.73 ± 0.06 mm for Straumann implants). Overdenture survival at 1 and 5 years was similar between the groups, but ball abutment wear was significantly higher in the Brånemark group, and retainer complications and need for occlusal adjustment were significantly higher in the Straumann group.

 

Van de Velde T, Collaert B, Sennerby L, De Bruyn H. Effect of implant design on preservation of marginal

bone in the mandible. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2010;12(2):134-141.

 

Five implants with a machined surface (Brånemark) or roughened with or without microthreads (TiOblast) were placed in each of 39 patients and immediately loaded with a provisional glass-fiber or metal-reinforced restoration, replaced by a metal-resin or metal-ceramic cantilever bridge after 3 months. Implant survival rates after 1 year were 98.6%, 100% and 100%  for the machined, microthreaded and non-microthreaded implant, respectively, and the mean bone loss values were 1.52 ± 0.66, 0.70 ± 1.01 mm and 0.79 ± 0.79 mm, respectively. The difference between the machined  implants from the roughened implants was significant. Bone preservation was therefore influenced by implant design.

Berdougo M, Fortin T, Blanchet E, Isidori M, Bosson J-L. Flapless implant surgery using an image-guided

system. A 1- to 4-year retrospective multicenter comparative clinical study. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res

2010;12(2):142-152.

 

A total of 552 implants were placed in 169 patients, 271 using image-guided flapless surgery (test) and 281 using a conventional procedure (control). An indication bias initially meant that comparison between the groups could not be made, but propensity scores were used to reduce the bias following logistic regression analysis. Cumulative survival rates were 96.30% and 98.57% in the test and control groups, respectively, and the survival rate for transmucosal implants was 97%. No significant differences were observed, despite initially less favourable conditions for the test group.

 

Telleman G, Albrektsson T, Hoffman M, Johansson CB, Vissink A, Meijer HJS, Raghoebar GM. Peri-implant endosseous healing properties of dual acid-etched mini-implants with a nanometer-sized deposition of CaP: a histological and histomorphometric human study. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2010;12(2):153-160.

 

In each of 15 patients, two mini-implants were placed, one with a dual acid-etched surface (DAE) and one with DAE and nanometer-sized calcium phosphate particles (DEA + CaP) to fix an iliac crest bone graft in the maxilla. For each implant, part was in native bone and part was in grafted bone. After 3 months, a trend to greater bone response was observed around the DEA + CaP implants in native bone, but only old bone particles (BIC and bone area percentages) were significant. Peri-implant endosseous healing was therefore increased around DEA + CaP implants in native bone but not in grafted bone.

Clinical Oral Implants Research

 

Vol. 21 No. 5 (May 2010)

Vol. 21 No. 6 (June 2010)

 

Agliardi E, Panigatti S, Clericò M, Villa C, Malò P.  Immediate rehabilitation of the edentulous jaws with full fixed prostheses supported by four implants: interim results of a single cohort prospective study. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(5):459-465.

 

Two distal tilted implants and two anterior axial implants were placed in the maxilla or mandible of each of 173 patients and immediately loaded with a provisional full-arch fixed prosthesis; definitive restorations were placed after 4-6 months. For this analysis, 154 prostheses had been in function for at least 1 year. There were five implant failures (four axial maxillary implants and one tilted mandibular  implant), giving implant survival rates of 98.36% and 99.73% for the maxilla and mandible,  respectively. Mean bone loss at 1 year was 0.9 ± 0.7 mm and 1.2 ± 0.9 mm in the maxilla and mandible, respectively. The results suggested that the technique may be a suitable option for immediate rehabilitation.

 

Vercruyssen M, Quirynen M. Long-term, retrospective evaluation (implant and patient-centered outcome) of the two-implant-supported overdenture in the mandible. Part 2: marginal bone loss. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(5):466-472.

 

Data from 495 patients with overdentures at least 5  years in function were retrospectively evaluated,

including medical history, clinical data and radiographs. Mean bone loss values after 3, 5, 8, 12 and 16 years of loading were 0.08 ± 0.22 mm, 0.07 ± 0.14 mm, 0.06 ± 0.12 mm, 0.04 ± 0.07 mm and 0.05 ± 0.05 mm, respectively. Ongoing bone loss exceeding 0.2 mm was  observed at 26 implants, and smoking, GBR, dehiscences and bone quality were seen to have a significant effect. Mean bone loss was therefore < 0.1 mm after the first year of loading.

 

Elsyad MA, El Shoukouki AH. Resilient liner vs. clip attachment effect on peri-implant tissues of bar-implant-retained mandibular overdenture: a 1-year clinical and radiographic study.  Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(5):473-480.

 

Each of 30 patients received two implants in the canine area of the mandible via a two-stage protocol, and bars were connected to the implants after 3 months, retained with either clips or silicone-resilient liners. Peri-implant tissues were evaluated at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Peri-implant plaque score, gingival score, probing depth and horizontal bone loss were all significantly decreased with the resilient liner compared to the clips. The resilient liner attachment is therefore preferable for peri-implant tissue health.

 

Zembić A, Glauser R, Khraisat A, Hämmerle CHF.  Immediate vs. early loading of dental implants: 3-year

results of a randomized controlled clinical trial. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(5):481-489.

 

Implants were placed in 11 patients and loaded either early (control) or immediately (test) and evaluated after 1 and 3 years. The mean observation time was 39.8 months. There were three implant failures in the test group and none in the control groups, giving implant survival rates of 85% and 100%, respectively. There were no differences in implant stability between the groups. Marginal bone level was significantly higher at test implants (0.36 ± 0.5 mm versus 1.08 ± 0.37 mm). There was a significant decrease in bone level from baseline to 3 years in both groups, but the bone loss was not significantly different between the groups.

 

Roccuzzo M, De Angelis N, Bonino L, Aglietta M. Ten-year results of a prospective cohort study on implants in periodontally compromised patients. Part 1: implant loss and radiographic bone loss. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(5):490-496.

 

In 112 patients, who were categorized as periodontally healthy, moderately periodontally compromised or severely periodontally compromised, implants were placed after completion of periodontal therapy. Patients were asked to perform supportive periodontal therapy at the end of treatment. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed after 10 years. A total  of 18 implants were removed due to biological complications, and 11 patients were lost to follow-up; implant survival rates were 96.6%, 92.8% and 90% for periodontally healthy, moderately periodontally compromised and severely periodontally compromised patients, respectively, and the mean bone loss was 0.75 ± 0.88 mm, 1.14 ± 1.11 mm and 0.98 ± 1.22 mm, respectively; there were no significant differences between the groups. However, the percentage of sites with ≥ 3 mm bone loss was significantly greater in the severely compromised versus the healthy group, and was associated with lack of adherence to supportive periodontal therapy.

Tetsch J, Tetsch P, Lysek JA.  Long-term results after lateral and osteotome sinus floor elevation: a

retrospective analysis of 2190 implants over a time period of 15 years.  Clin Oral Implants Res

2010;21(5):497-503.

 

A total of 2190 implants were placed in sinus augmentation sites, 1207 in sites with lateral augmentation(461 patients) and 983 in sites with osteotome sinus floor elevation (522 patients). Most cases of lateral sinus floor elevation used bovine bone mineral (n = 1217), while 126 cases used β-tricalcium phosphate and some used only autogenous bone. Implant survival after a mean of 176 months of loading was 97.1% for both techniques, indicating that both are suitable and show acceptable results.

 

Thöne-Mülling M, Swierkot K, Nonnenmacher C, Mutters R, Flores-de-Jacoby L, Mengel R. Comparison of two full-mouth approaches in the treatment of peri-implant mucositis: a pilot study. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(5):504-512.

A total of 13 patients with treated chronic periodontitis and 36 implants with mucositis received full-mouth scaling with or without chlorhexidine and clinical and microbiological examination was performed at baseline and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 months. Probing depth was significantly reduced after 8 months in both groups, with no significant differences between the groups. Samples were also taken 24 h after treatment, which showed a reduction in bacteria, but this reduction was not significant at 8 months.

Mohamed S, Polyzois I, Renvert S, Claffey N. Effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by circumferential bone defects. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(5):513-519.

Mandibular premolars were extracted from four dogs and Nanotite and Osseotite implants partially inserted in the left side- After 5 weeks, the implants were removed, decontaminated and placed fully in the contralateral side, with the coronal 5 mm surrounded by a 1 mm circumferential defect. After 12 weeks, direct BIC was observed on the previously contaminated parts of the implants, but the results were superior with Nanotite compared to Osseotite.  Previously contaminated implant  surfaces surrounded by defects can therefore osseointegrate.

 

Lai HC, Zhuang L-F, Lv X-F, Zhang Z-Y, Zhang Y-X, Zhang Z-Y. Osteotome sinus floor elevation with or

without grafting: a preliminary clinical trial. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(5):520-526.

 

Osteotome sinus floor elevation was performed in 202 patients and 280 implants were placed; in 125

patients, 191 implants were placed without grafting. Residual bone heights were 4.7 ± 2.1 mm and 5.6 ± 2.5 mm in the grafted and non-grafted groups, respectively. The cumulative implant survival rate was 95.71% and was not significantly influenced by residual bone height. Endo-sinus bone gain and crestal bone loss after 9 months were 2.66 ± 0.87 mm and 1.2 ± 0.48 mm, respectively. Predictable osseointegration can therefore be achieved with osteotome sinus floor elevation with or without grafting. 

 

 

Chang M, Wennström JL. Peri-implant soft tissue and bone crest alterations at fixed dental prostheses: a 3-year prospective study. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(5):527-534.

 

Peri-implant assessments were performed at implant placement and after 2, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months in 16 patients with 18 prostheses supported on 43 implants. Soft tissue margin recession of approximately 0.6 mm was noted at facial implants in the first 6 months, but a mean increase of 1.1 mm was seen at proximal sites. Greater loss of proximal bone crest height was observed at inter-implant  versus tooth-implant sites at 6 months. No further significant changes were observed from 6 to 36 months. Proximal bone crest level had a significant influence on proximal soft tissue height, and  significant predictors of bone loss were horizontal inter-unit distance, type of proximal unit and peri-implant bone level change.

 

Pelegrine AA, da Costa CES, Correa MEP, Marques JFC Jr. Clinical and histomorphometric evaluation of

extraction sockets treated with an autologous bone marrow graft. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(5):535-542.

 

Thirteen patients requiring tooth extraction were split into two groups – a total of 15 teeth were extracted from seven patients in the control groups and 15 were extracted from six patients in the test group. Bone marrow was obtained from the iliac crest in the test  group prior to the extractions and used to graft the extraction sites; control sites received no grafting. The sites were evaluated after 6 months. Preservation of the alveolar ridge was significantly better in the test group, and the height of bone loss on the buccal plate was also significantly less. Expansion or bone grafting complimentary procedures were necessary at five control sites for implant placement, but none were required in the test group. Alveolar bone repair can therefore be enhanced by autologous bone marrow.

 

Schmidlin K, Schnell N, Steiner S, Salvi GE, Pjetursson B, Matuliene G, Zwahlen M, Brägger U, Lang NP.

Complication and failure rates in patients treated for chronic periodontitis and restored with single crowns on teeth and/or implants. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(5):550-557.

 

Of 199 patients with chronic periodontitis from an initial total of 392 treated between 1978 and 2002, 64 were treated with single crowns. A total of 168 single crown units were examined. The mean follow-up time was 11.8 years; during this time 19 crowns were lost and there were 22 biological and 11 technical complications. The chance of remaining free of any complication after 10 years was 89.3% for crowns on vital teeth, 85.8% for crowns on endodontically treated teeth without post and core, 75.9% for crowns on endodontically treated teeth with cast post and core, and 66.2% for crowns on implants; the latter were 3.5 times more likely to yield complications or failures, while crowns on vital teeth had the lowest failure/complication rate.

 

Alsabeeha NHM, de Silva RK, Thomson WM, Payne AGT. Primary stability measurements of single implants in the midline of the edentulous mandible for overdentures. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(5):563-566.

 

Each of 36 patients received an implant (Southern 8 mm diameter, Southern 3.75 mm diameter or Neoss 4 mm diameter) in the midline symphysis of the edentulous mandible. Primary stability was assessed using the Osstell device and was found to be greatest for the 8 mm implants (mean 84.8) followed by the 4 mm diameter implants (82.3). The primary stability for the 3.75 mm implants (75.3) was significantly lower. Primary stability did not appear to be influenced by host  site variables, but there was no clear correlation between ISQ and implant diameter.

 

Retzepi M, Donos N. Guided bone regeneration: biologic principle and therapeutic applications. Clin Oral

Implants Res 2010;21(6):567-576.

 

This review discusses the rationale and concept of GBR and provides an overview focusing on its

effectiveness and predictability for regeneration in critical-sized cranio-maxillofacial defects, potential for neo-osteogenesis and reconstruction of the alveolar ridge. Recommendations for future research include investigating the molecular mechanisms of the healing process following GBR, identifying the factors that affect effectiveness and predictability, and evaluating the pathophysiology of the healing process in systemic conditions.

Park J-C, Kim H-D, Kim S-M, Kim M-J, Lee J-H. A comparison of implant stability quotients measured using magnetic resonance frequency analysis from two directions: a prospective clinical study during the initial healing period. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(6):591-597.

 

A total of 71 non-submerged implants were placed in 53 patients to replace the loss of mandibular molars. ISQ was measured at baseline and after 4 and 10 weeks in both the bucco-lingual and mesio-distal directions. No significant differences were observed between ISQs measured in the two different directions, but the higher and lower values at each measurement point were significantly different. For implants with ISQ variation of ≥ 3 or < 3, the pattern of change of the lower value was significantly different from baseline to 10 weeks after surgery. Directional measurements and higher and lower values may therefore allow patterns of changes that may not be otherwise identified.

 

Sim CPC, Lang NP. Factors influencing resonance frequency analysis assessed by Osstell mentor during

implant tissue integration. I. Instrument positioning, bone structure, and implant length. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(6):598-604.

 

Implants either 8 mm or 10 mm in length were  placed in 32 patients and resonance frequency analysis

(RFA) using the Osstell mentor performed at baseline and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 12 weeks; clinical

parameters were also assessed. ISQ increased continuously from baseline to weeks 6, 8 and 12, and was

not found to be affected by the position of the Osstell device. Lower ISQ values up to week 8 were observed in lower bone density and higher ISQ values were observed with shorter implants; a significant increase in ISQ was observed with 8 mm implants but not with 10 mm implants. Reproducible ISQ values can be obtained with the Osstell mentor that are affected by implant length and bone quality.

Han J, Lulic M, Lang NP.  Factors influencing resonance frequency analysis assessed by Osstell mentor

during implant tissue integration. II. Implant surface modifications and implant diameter. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(6):605-611.

 

A total of 25 implants were placed (12 SLA RN, eight SLActive RN and five SLA WN) and ISQ measured

with the Osstell mentor device at baseline and after 4 days and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks. ISQ decreased from baseline to 3 weeks and then increased steadily up to 12 weeks. There were no significant differences between the implant types at each of the time points and patterns of change in ISQ were similar. The authors recommended that implant stability should therefore be monitored by ISQ after implant placement at 3 and 8 weeks.

 

Merheb J, Van Assche N, Coucke W, Jacobs R, Naert I, Quirynen M. Relationship between cortical bone

thickness or computerized tomography-derived bone density values and implant stability. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(6):612-617.

 

RFA and Periotest was performed for 136 implants placed in 24 patients at implant placement and loading, and bone density and thickness was elucidated from pre-operative CT scans. The results showed that mean RFA at implant placement was not significantly influenced by implant length or diameter or the presence of bony dehiscence. There were significant linear relationships between RFA/Periotest values and bone density or bone thickness at both implant placement and loading.

 

Araújo MVF, Mendes VC, Chattopadhyay P, Davies JE. Low-temperature particulate calcium phosphates for bone regeneration. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(6):632-641.

 

A low temperature calcium phosphate (LTCP) particulate was prepared using a machine-based process and compared with anorganic bovine bone, bioactive glass  and demineralised bone matrix in defects in rat femurs. Histological and μCT analyses were carried out at 2, 6, 12 and 16 weeks. An early increase in bone formation, complete degradation and reparative bone remodelling was observed with LTCP, whereas the other materials were not resorbed after 16 weeks. The marrow cavity and tissue were therefore reconstituted with LTCP.

 

Klein MO, Bijelic A, Toyoshima T, Götz H, van Koppenfels RL, Al-Nawas B, Duschner H.  Long-term

response of osteogenic cells on micron and submicron-scale-structured hydrophilic titanium surfaces:

sequence of cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(6):642-649.

 

Titanium disks with smooth, SLA or modSLA surfaces were analyzed for surface topography and surface

elemental composition. Human osteogenic cells were then cultivated on the disks; tissue culture polystyrene served as a control. Cell counts were performed and osteogenic differentiation assessed after 24, 48 and 72 hours and 7, 14 and 21 days. Low surface carbon contamination was found on the modSLA disks. The maturation of osteogenic precursors into osteoblasts was promoted by SLA and especially by modSLA, whereas an immature phenotype remained on the smooth and control disks. The highest osteocalcin expression was found on the modSLA disks. The results indicate that cell maturation is influenced by surface topography and hydrophilicity.

 

Nisapakultorn K, Suphanantachat S, Silkosessak O, Rattanamongkolgul S. Factors affecting soft tissue level around anterior maxillary single-tooth implants. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21(6):662-670.

 

Variables associated with soft tissue level were elucidated for 40 implants in anterior maxillae and the

influence of each was analyzed. Most implants replaced upper central incisors. Papilla fill of  ≥ 50% was

observed for 89% of the sites. The mean facial mucosal margin was 0.5 ± 0.9 mm more apical than the

adjacent teeth, and this was influenced by thin peri-implant biotype, proclined implant angle, more apical facial bone crest, increased distance from contact point to bone crest, contact point to platform and contact point to implant bone; the most significant factor was thin biotype.

European Journal of Oral Implantology

Vol. 3 No. 1 (April 2010)

 

Esposito M, Grusovin MG, Rees J, Karasoulos D, Felice P, Allisa R, Worthington H, Coulthard P.

Effectiveness of sinus lift procedures for dental implant rehabilitation: a Cochrane systematic review. Eur J Oral Implantol 2010;3(1):7-26.

 

A literature and database search was performed, and implant companies were contacted, for studies on

augmentation techniques in the maxillary sinus for implant-supported prostheses. A total of 29 trials were considered eligible for inclusion, of which 10 were  randomized controlled trials. One trial with 15 patients suggested that short implants may be an alternative to sinus lift in suitable patients, while nine trials, with 235 patients, compared different sinus lift techniques, four of which evaluated platelet-rich plasma. There were few trials, with short follow-up times and often a  high risk of bias. However, short implants can be successfully used in 1-5 mm residual bone height, but  long-term prognosis is unknown. Bone substitute material can be used instead of autogenous bone, and a crestal approach and 8 mm implants may have fewer complications than a lateral window approach and 10 mm implants if the residual bone height is 3-6 mm. Outcomes may also be improved by the use of PRP.

Wiesner G, Esposito M,  Worthington H, Schlee M.  Connective tissue grafts for thickening peri-implant

tissues at implant placement. One-year results  from an explanatory split-mouth randomised controlled

clinical trial. Eur J Oral Implantol 2010;3(1):27-35.

 

Ten patients requiring bilateral implant placement in the premolar or molar regions were randomised to have autogenous connective tissue graft on one side and no augmentation on the contralateral side. Abutments were placed after 3 months and definitive crowns placed after another month. There were no implant failures or complications after 1 year of loading, but both groups lost significant peri-implant bone, with no significant difference between the groups However, soft tissue was significantly thicker  and the pink esthetic score was significantly better in the augmented group. Patients were satisfied with both treatments, but the esthetics of the augmented sites were significantly preferred, although five patients indicated they would not undergo the procedure again.

 

Bonde MJ, Stokholm R, Isidor F, Schou S.  Outcome of implant-supported  single-tooth replacements

performed by dental students. A 10-year clinical and radiographic retrospective study. Eur J Oral Implantol 2010;3(1):37-46.

 

A total of 55 implant supporting single crowns were placed in 51 patients by dental students, under the

supervision of experienced dentists and surgeons. Survival, clinical parameters and complications were

assessed during the follow-up period. At the end of the study, 49 implants in 45 patients were available for analysis. The implant survival rate was 94%, the mean probing depth was 4.8 mm and the mean change in bone level was -0.14 mm in the first year and 0.16 mm after 10 years. Absence of bleeding around the implant sites was rarely seen, and the mean bleeding  on probing score was 0.57. Peri-implantitis was observed in five patients due to excess cement, fistula was observed at two implants in two patients, and five technical complications were observed in five patients. The high survival rates and low complications suggested that implant therapy is suitable for inclusion in the undergraduate dental curriculum.

 

Todisco M.  Early loading of implants in vertically  augmented bone with non-resorbable membranes and deproteinised anorganic bovine bone. An uncontrolled prospective cohort study.  Eur J Oral Implantol 2010;3(1):47-58.

 

Vertical GBR with anorganic bovine bone and ePTFE titanium-reinforced membranes was performed at 25 sites in 20 patients; the membranes were removed after 1 year and 64 implants placed, which were loaded after a further 30 days. Early membrane exposure occurred at two sites but healing was uneventful in the remaining 23 sites. Mean vertical bone defect was 5.6 ± 1.7 mm, and the mean vertical bone gain was 5.2 ± 1.5 mm. Histological analysis showed 52.6% xenograft and new bone.  Implant survival was 100% and significant peri-implant bone loss (mean 0.95 ± 0.21 mm) was observed from implant placement to the 1-year follow-up. The results showed that vertical bone gain can be achieved with this GBR technique, with good stability.

 

Cannullo L, Sisti A. Early implant loading after vertical ridge  augmentation (VRA) using e-PTFE titanium-

reinforced membrane and nano-structured hydroxyapatite: 2-year prospective study. Eur J Oral Implantol 2010;3(1):59-69.

 

Vertical ridge augmentation was performed with nano-structured Mg-enriched hydroxyapatite and an ePTFE membrane in 20 patients; 42 implants were simultaneously placed. Second surgery was performed after 3 months and definitive restorations were placed within a further 2 weeks. After 2 years, there were no implant or prosthesis failures and complete bone filling was obtained in 19 out of the 20 cases, with a mean gain in bone height of 5.6 mm. Inter-implant bone levels were maintained over the 2-year period but significant peri-implant bone loss was observed (mean bone levels of 0.3 mm at loading, 0.90 mm after 1 year and 0.98 after 2 years). Significant increases in ISQ were noted, from 49.3 at implant placement to 63.9 at final restoration placement and 73.6 after 2 years.

 

Lambrecht JT, Cardone E, Kühl S. Status report on dental implantology in Switzerland in 2006. A cross-

sectional survey. Eur J Oral Implantol 2010;3(1):71-74.

A total of 3,315 questionnaires were sent to all members of the Swiss Dental Society for background data and implantology concepts. The response rate was 47.3%. The implant systems most frequently used were Straumann, Nobel Biocare, SPI and Frialit and most of the respondents (63.8%) placed more than 20 implants per year. The indication of choice was the edentulous mandible, and the most important factor was long-term prognosis. The majority of dentists also  followed active education programs. The n umber of dentists using implantology had almost doubled from  a similar survey 12 years previously, and the willingness to extend the therapeutic range was greatly increased.

Implant Dentistry

Vol. 19 No. 2 (April 2010)

 

Cortes ARG, Cortes DN. Nontraumatic bone expansion for immediate dental implant placement: an analysis of 21 cases. Implant Dent 2010;19(2):92-97.

 

Harvesting of autologous bone to reconstruct the resorbed alveolar ridge can be beneficial but carries the risk of certain complications. The use of bone expansion with screws, followed by immediate implant placement, to try to prevent such problems was  therefore analyzed. Management solutions were based on an analysis of 21 cases of bone expansion in poor bone width.

 

 

 Koh RU, Rudek I, Wang H-L.  Immediate implant placement: positives and negatives.  Implant Dent

2010;19(2):98-108.

 

Immediate implant placement is defined as immediately following tooth  extraction – this allows shorter

treatment and fewer surgical procedures, but may increase the risk of implant failure. A literature search was therefore performed on this topic to investigate the pros and cons of the approach. The most important factor for successful treatment outcomes appeared to be careful case selection. The review presents suitable indications, contraindications and indications where delayed placement would be better suited, and proper case selection is discussed.

 

Arora NS, Ramanayake T, Ren Y-F, Romanos GE. Platelet-rich plasma in sinus augmentation procedures: a systematic literature review: Part II. Implant Dent 2010;19(2):145-157.

 

A literature review was conducted to determine whether bone regeneration is more rapid or effective with the addition of PRP to bone or bone substitutes in sinus augmentation. There are few human studies on PRP in conjunction with graft materials, although early  regeneration and reduction of soft and hard tissue healing times has been shown. However, no significant benefit could be found from these studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The benefit of PRP in sinus augmentation was therefore not supported.

 

International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants

Vol. 25 No. 2 (March/April 2010)

 

Neugebauer J, Ritter L, Mischkowski RA, Dreiseidler T, Scherer P, Ketterle M, Rothamel D, Zöller JE.

Evaluation of maxillary sinus anatomy by  cone-beam CT prior to sinus elevation.  Int J Oral Maxillofac

Implants 2010;25(2):258-265.

 

Cone-beam CT scans from 1,029 patients were examined, taking note of the number of septa and locations. Septa were observed in 33.2% of sinuses and 47% of patients, with 13.7% showing a septum in each sinus and 8.7% with up to three septa per sinus. There was no difference in prevalence according to age, sex or location. The most common locations, in order, were  the first, second and third molar regions, respectively, the second and first premolar regions, respectively, and the canine region. Mean septa height was 11.7 ± 6.08 mm and 7.3 ± 5.08 mm for sagittal and transverse orientations, respectively.

 

Çehreli MC, Karasoy D, Kökat AM, Akca K, Eckert S. A systematic review of marginal bone loss around

implants retaining or supporting overdentures. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010;25(2):266-277.

 

A literature review of bone loss in connection with implant-supported overdentures was performed. A total of 46 articles were included in the analysis, and a meta-analysis was possible for eight of these, but statistical analysis was not possible for maxillary overdentures. Implant design and attachment did not appear to influence bone loss for mandibular implants, and no significant differences in implant types of attachment systems were detected by meta-analysis.

 

Chowdhary R, Mankani N, Chandraker NK. Awareness of dental implants as a treatment choice in urban

Indian populations. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010;25(2):305-308.

 

A questionnaire on dental implant awareness was administered to 10,000 Indian urban dwellers through

private clinics and dental hospitals. The results showed that 23.24% had heard of dental implants, and the majority (96.23%) thought that dental insurance coverage would be required for dental implant treatment. Dentists were seen as the main source of information about treatment options.

Bergkvist G, Koh K-J, Sahlholm S, Klintström E, Lindh C. Bone density at implant sites and its relationship to assessment of bone quality and treatment outcome. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010;25(2):321-328.

 

A total of 21 patients received 137 implants (87 maxillary and 50 mandibular), which were immediately

loaded with fixed provisional prostheses. Mean bone mineral density was significantly correlated with bone quality classification and stability values. Mean bone loss  was not significantly different after 1 year, regardless of bone mineral density and stability at  implant placement. CT can therefore be used

preoperatively to assess bone density before implant placement, since these seem to correlate with implant stability.

 

 Artzi Z, Kohen J, Carmeli G, Karmon B, Lor A, Ormianer Z. The efficacy of full-arch immediately restored

implant-supported reconstructions in extraction and healed sites: a 36-month retrospective evaluation. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010;25(2):329-335.

 

A total of 676 implants (367 in immediate extraction sites and 309 in healed alveoli) were placed in 54

patients to support provisional full-arch prostheses, with definitive restorations placed after 3-6 months. A total of 21 implants failed (3.1%), 13 of which were placed immediately after extraction; all failures occurred within 2 months of placement. Short and narrow implants were significantly associated with greater risk of failure. Mean crestal bone resorption after 6, 18 and 36  months was significantly less for implants in extraction sockets (0.18 mm, 0.55 mm and 0.79 mm, respectively, versus 0.31 mm, 0.78 mm and 1.1 mm, respectively for implants placed in healed sites).  A correlation was also observed between crestal bone resorption and simultaneous bone augmentation and implant placement.

Oliva J, Oliva X, Oliva JD. Five-year success rate of 831 consecutively placed zirconia dental implants in

humans: a comparison of three different rough surfaces.  Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010;25(2):336-

344.

 

A total of 831 coated, uncoated and acid-etched ZrO2 implants with five different implant designs were

placed in 378 patients, using standard or flapless surgical procedures and simultaneous bone augmentation or sinus elevation, and followed for up to five years. Implant success rates for coated, uncoated and acid-etched implants were 92.77%, 93.57% and 97.60%, respectively; the difference for the acid-etched group was significant. Rough surface zirconia dental implants may therefore be a suitable alternative treatment for tooth replacement.

 

Tortamano P, Camargo LOA, Bello-Silva MS, Kanashiro LH. Immediate implant placement and restoration in the esthetic zone: a prospective  study with 18 months of follow-up.  Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants

2010;25(2):345-350.

In each of 12 patients, a hopeless maxillary incisor was removed and immediately replaced with an implant, and a provisional restoration was immediately placed. Clinical peri-implant measurements were recorded at implant placement and restoration and after 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. There were no implant failures up to 18 months, and there were no significant differences in the distances between the incisal edge of the adjacent teeth and tips of the mesial/distal papillae at any time, and no alterations in crown dimensions. Immediate implantation and restoration may therefore be a suitable option in certain patients.

 

Jofré J, Conrady Y, Carrasco C. Survival of splinted mini-implants after contamination with stainless steel. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010;25(2):351-356.

 

In the anterior mandibles of 45 patients a total of 90  implants were inserted using a flapless protocol (44 placed without a guide (ball group) and 46 using a stainless steel guide (bar group)), and mandibular

overdentures were immediately placed. In an  in vitro analysis, five implants were contaminated with a

stainless steel guide and observed to identify surface contaminants and chemical composition, compared to implants from their original containers. One implant failure occurred  in the bar group, giving an implant survival rate of 97.8%, while four failed in the ball group, giving an implant survival rate of 90.9%. Carbon and oxygen was observed on all implants in the in vitro analysis, and silica, calcium, iron and chromium were found on those in contact with stainless steel. Stainless steel contamination did not appear to generate contamination that jeopardized implant survival.

 

Krennmair G, Seemann R, Schmidinger S, Ewers R, Piehslinger E. Clinical outcome of root-shaped dental

implants of various diameters: 5-year results. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010;25(2):357-366.

 

A total of 541 implants placed in 216 patients were retrospectively evaluated;  198 of the patients were

available for a 5-7-year follow-up evaluation. Survival and success rates after 5 years were 98.3% and

97.3%, respectively, and the failure rate was slightly greater for 3.8 mm diameter implants (3.7%) compared to 4.3 mm and 5.0/6.0 mm implants (1.4% and 1.0%, respectively). Mean peri-implant bone resorption was 1.8 ± 0.4 mm. All prostheses remained in function, and the most frequent prosthodontic maintenance requirements were abutment screw loosening (4.5%) and isolated crown loosening (9.8%).

 

Stanford CM, Wagner W, Rodriguez y Baena R, Norton M, McGlumphy EA, Schmidt J. Evaluation of the

effectiveness of dental implant therapy  in a practice-based network (FOCUS).  Int J Oral Maxillofac

Implants 2010;25(2):367-373.

 

A total of 549 subjects requiring a minimum of two  dental implants were recruited and a total of 1,893

implants were placed. At the 1-year recall, 340 patients with  1,246 implants (779 maxillary and 467

mandibular) were available for analysis. A total of 17 implants in 15 patients were lost after 1 year, giving a cumulative a survival rate of 98.6%. The risk of implant loss was greater at sites with advanced resorption and for wider diameter implants, but there was no relationship between  implant loss and implant length or anatomic location.

 

Semper W, Heberer S, Nelson K. Retrospective analysis of bar-retained dentures with cantilever extension: marginal bone level changes around dental implants over time.  Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants

2010;25(2):385-393.

 

Data were obtained from 48 patients with implant-supported bar-retained cantilevered (up to 12 mm)

prostheses, on a total of 313 implants (172 in the maxilla supporting 30 prostheses and 141 in the mandible supporting 36 prostheses). Changes in bone level at mesial and distal implant sites were measured on panoramic radiographs. Mean mesial and distal bone  loss after 4 years was 2.20 ± 0.91 mm and 2.31 ± 1.05 mm, respectively. There was no correlation between implant length, number  of implants placed or cantilever length and bone loss, but there was a significant correlation between jaw (maxilla or mandible), implant system and bone loss. Bar-retained prostheses with cantilever extensions up to 12 mm are therefore a suitable treatment option.

Mangano C, Mangano F, Piattelli A, Iezzi G, Mangano A, La Colla L. Prospective clinical evaluation of 307

single-tooth Morse taper-connection  implants: a multicenter study.  Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants

2010;25(2):394-400.

 

A total of 307 Morse taper connection implants (162 maxillary, 145 mandibular) were placed in 295 patients over a 4-year period, with evaluations planned after 12, 24, 36 and 48m months. The mean follow-up time was 30.79 months. The rate of abutment loosening was very low (0.66%); only two cases of abutment loosening were noted. The implant survival rate and implant/crown success rate was 98.4% and 97.07%, respectively, and the mean distance from implant shoulder to first BIC was 1.14 mm. Morse taper connection implants are therefore a good option for single-tooth restoration.

 

Atieh MA, Payne AGT, Duncan WJ, de Silva RK, Cullinan MP.  Immediate placement or immediate

restoration/loading of single implants for molar tooth replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010;25(2):401-415.

 

An electronic database search was performed and a meta-analysis carried out, on data relating to

immediately placed single implants in molar sites.  For implants placed immediately in molar extraction

sockets, nine studies with 1,013 implants were identified; the implant survival rate was 99.0%, and no

differences were observed between immediate or delayed restoration/loading. For implants placed in healed molar sites, four studies with 188 implants were identified; the implant survival rate was 97.9%, and no differences were observed between immediate and delayed loading.

 

Journal of Clinical Periodontology

Vol. 37 No. 5 (May 2010)

Vol. 37 No. 6 (May 2010)

 

Leininger M, Tenenbaum H, Davideau J-L. Modified periodontal risk assessment score: long-term predictive value of treatment outcomes. A retrospective study. J Clin Periodontol 2010;37(5):427-435.

 

Re-examination of 30 patients was performed 6-12 years after the initial diagnosis and treatment of

periodontitis. Periodontal risk assessment diagram surface (PRAS) score was elucidated and the patients

classified into low-to-moderate, high risk or non-compliant (if no supportive periodontal therapy was not attended) groups. Tooth loss was significantly higher in the high-risk group, probing depth reduction was lower and bleeding on probing reduction was greater. Probing depth reduction was significantly greater in the compliant versus the non-compliant group. PRAS was therefore reliable in evaluating long-term tooth loss and susceptibility to periodontal disease.

Fransson C, Tomasi C, Pikner SS, Gröndahl  K, Wennström JL, Leyland AH, Berglundh T.  Severity and

pattern of peri-implantitis-associated bone loss. J Clin Periodontol 2010;37(5):442-448.

Bone level measurements from intra-oral radiographs taken after the 1-year follow-up were obtained for 419 implants with a history of bone loss in 182 subjects. Mean bone loss after the first year was 1.68 mm; bone loss  ≥ 2 mm was observed at 32% of implants. The  pattern of bone loss was non-linear and the rate increased over time. The pattern of bone loss varies  between subjects but was similar within the same subject.

 

Schwarz F, Sahm N, Schwarz K, Becker J. Impact of defect configuration on the clinical outcome following

surgical regenerative therapy of peri-implantitis. J Clin Periodontol 2010;37(5):449-455.

 

Access flap surgery and application of natural bone mineral and a collagen membrane was used for surgical therapy of periodontitis in 27 patients with Class Ib, Class Ic or Class Ie intrabony defects. Higher changes in probing depth and clinical attachment level were observed in Class Ie defects at 6 and 12 months, but differences were significant only at 6 months. The  lowest changes in probing depth and clinical attachment level were observed in Class Ib and Class Ic defects at the mid-buccal aspect. The outcome of surgical regenerative therapy may therefore be influenced by the defect configuration.

 

Chao Y-L, Chen H-H, Mei C-C, Tu Y-K, Lu H-K. Meta-regression analysis of the initial bone height for

predicting implant survival rates of two sinus elevation procedures. J Clin Periodontol 2010;37(5):456-465.

Associations between alveolar bone  height and implant survival in lateral window or osteotome sinus

elevation procedures were investigated by means of a literature search and meta-regression analyses. The analysis included 21 studies that met the inclusion criteria, from a total of 635. The results indicated an increased trend to implant survival with greater initial bone height for the lateral window technique, but no association was found for the osteotome technique due  to a lack of available data of initial bone height < 4 mm.

 

Schwarz F, Sager M, Kadelka I, Ferrari D, Becker J. Influence of titanium implant surface characteristics on bone regeneration in dehiscence-type defects: an experimental study in dogs.  J Clin Periodontol

2010;37(5):466-473.

 

Dehiscence-type defects were created in the maxillae and mandibles of 12 foxhounds and implants with

either a modified sandblasted and acid-etched (modSLA) or a calcium phosphate nanometer particle

modification (DCD/CaP) were placed in a submerged position and examined after 2 and 8 weeks. The mean bone fill and area of mineralized tissue were similar on both groups at 2 and 8 weeks, but new bone height and bone-to-implant contact were significantly higher with the modSLA implants. The potential to support osseointegration may therefore be higher with modSLA implants.

 

Schwarz F, Jung RE, Fienitz T, Wieland M, Becker J, Sager M.  Impact of guided bone regeneration and

defect dimension on wound healing at chemically modified hydrophilic titanium implant surfaces: an

experimental study in dogs. J Clin Periodontol 2010;37(5):474-485.

 

Implants with a chemically modified surface (modSLA) were placed in  lateral ridge defects of different

heights (2, 4, 6 and 8 mm) in 12 dogs. The defects were either untreated or treated with GBR (biphasic

calcium phosphate and PEG membrane) and evaluated after 2 and 8 weeks. Percentage linear fill and

regenerated area were comparable between the GBR and untreated groups at 8 weeks, but there was a

significant difference for mean percentage linear fill at the 2 mm defects. Bone regeneration and

osseointegration was therefore supported by modSLA implants.

Hirotomi T, Yoshihara A, Ogawa H, Miyazaki H.  Tooth-related risk factors for periodontal disease in

community-dwelling elderly people. J Clin Periodontol 2010;37(6):494-500.

 

A longitudinal survey and clinical examination was performed in 286 elderly subjects over a 10-year period. The results indicated that  periodontal disease progression (clinical attachment level  ≥ 3 mm) occurred in 79% of subjects, most frequently in maxillary molars. Subjects wearing removable dentures were at greater risk, as were abutment teeth for dentures. Maxillary and multi-rooted teeth were shown to be possible risk factors for periodontal disease progression.

Rotundo R, Nieri M, Cairo F, Franceschi D, Mervelt J, Bonaccini D, Esposito M, Pini-Prato G.  Lack of

adjunctive benefit of Er:YAG laser in non-surgical periodontal treatment: a randomized split-mouth clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol 2010;37(6):526-533.

 

Four types of non-surgical periodontal therapy were performed in 27 patients: supragingival debridement; scaling and root planing (SRP) + Er:YAG laser; SRP; and ER-YAG laser and the outcomes assessed after 3 and 6 months. Greater clinical attachment gain was observed after 6 months with SRP versus supragingival debridement, but there were no differences between Er:YAG laser and supragingival debridement, or between SRP with and without Er.YAG laser. Adjunctive Er:YAG laser therapy therefore showed no benefit over SRP alone.

 

Yilmaz S, Cakar G, Yildirim B, Sculean A.  Healing of two and three wall intrabony periodontal defects

following treatment with an enamel matrix derivative combined with autogenous bone. J Clin Periodontol 2010;37(6):544-550.

 

Either EMD alone (control) or with autogenous bone (test) was used to fill one intrabony defect in each of 40 patients with advanced chronic periodontitis. After 1 year, both groups  showed significant changes from baseline. Significantly greater probing depth reductions (5.6 ± 0.9 mm vs. 4.6 ± 0.4 mm), relative attachment level gains (4.2 ± 1.1 mm vs. 3.4 ± 0.8 mm) and probing bone level gains (3.9 ± 1.0 mm vs. 2.8 ± 0.8 mm) were observed in the test group. EMD with autogenous bone therefore resulted in greater soft and hard tissue improvements, but the clinical relevance is not yet known.

Schwarz F, Mihatovic I, Ferrari D, Wieland M, Becker J.  Influence of frequent clinical probing during the

healing phase on healthy peri-implant soft tissue formed  at different titanium implant surfaces: a

histomorphometrical study in dogs. J Clin Periodontol 2010;37(6):551-562.

Clinical probing was performed at four different transmucosal surfaces (Machined, SLA, modified acid-

etched (modA) and chemically modified SLA (modSLA))  in 12 dogs 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after implant

placement, and histomorphometry was performed after 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks. The modA and modSLA

surfaces showed epithelial cells and connective tissue in close contact with the surface, while split formation was seen at the other two groups. Frequent probing disrupted the epithelial and connective tissue attachment and increased means pocket depths, mucosal margin to apical extension of junctional

epithelium, and apical extension of junctional epithelium to most coronal BIC.

Journal of Dentistry

Vol. 38 No. 5 (May 2010)

Vol. 38 No. 6 (June 2010)

 

Faggion CM Jr, Listl S, Tu Y-K.  Assessment of endpoints in studies  on peri-implantitis treatment – A

systematic review. J Dent 2010;38(6):443-450.

 

Literature where peri-implantitis endpoints were clearly stated as the objective of an investigation were

searched for, and a total of 14 studies met the inclusion criteria. No true peri-implantitis endpoints were

found in any of the studies, and implant failure was presented as a consequence of peri-implantitis. The

three most common surrogate endpoints were probing  depth, clinical attachment level and bleeding on

probing, but over 20 different clinical endpoints were found across the studies. The potential benefit of peri-implantitis therapy in reducing the risk of implant failure was not  reported. The authors suggested that surrogate endpoints should be standardized and validated.

 

Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Vol. 68 No. 5 (May 2010)

Vol. 68 No. 6 (June 2010)

 

Garlini G, Redemagni M, Donini M, Maiorana C. Maxillary sinus elevation with an alloplastic material and implants: 11 years of clinical and radiologic follow-up study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010;68(5):1152-1157.

Maxillary sinus elevation was performed using resorbable hydroxyapatite in 26 patients, with simultaneous placement of 47 implants. Prostheses were placed after 10 months. After 11 years of follow-up (mean 6 years), the cumulative implant survival rate was 100%, and the man graft resorption apical to the implants was 1.8 mm. Resorbable hydroxyapatite is therefore a suitable material for sinus grafting.

 

Journal of Dentistry

Vol. 38 No. 5 (May 2010)

Vol. 38 No. 6 (June 2010)

 

Faggion CM Jr, Listl S, Tu Y-K.  Assessment of endpoints in studies  on peri-implantitis treatment – A

systematic review. J Dent 2010;38(6):443-450.

 

Literature where peri-implantitis endpoints were clearly stated as the objective of an investigation were

searched for, and a total of 14 studies met the inclusion criteria. No true peri-implantitis endpoints were

found in any of the studies, and implant failure was presented as a consequence of peri-implantitis. The

three most common surrogate endpoints were probing  depth, clinical attachment level and bleeding on

probing, but over 20 different clinical endpoints were found across the studies. The potential benefit of peri-implantitis therapy in reducing the risk of implant failure was not  reported. The authors suggested that surrogate endpoints should be standardized and validated.

 

Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Vol. 68 No. 5 (May 2010)

Vol. 68 No. 6 (June 2010)

 

Garlini G, Redemagni M, Donini M, Maiorana C. Maxillary sinus elevation with an alloplastic material and implants: 11 years of clinical and radiologic follow-up study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010;68(5):1152-1157.

Maxillary sinus elevation was performed using resorbable hydroxyapatite in 26 patients, with simultaneous placement of 47 implants. Prostheses were placed after 10 months. After 11 years of follow-up (mean 6 years), the cumulative implant survival rate was 100%, and the man graft resorption apical to the implants was 1.8 mm. Resorbable hydroxyapatite is therefore a suitable material for sinus grafting.

Lee E-H, Ryu S-M, Kim J-Y, Cho B-O, Lee Y-C, Park Y-J, Kim S-G. Effects of installation depth on survival of

an hydroxyapatite-coated Bicon dental implant for single-tooth restoration.  J Oral Maxillofac Surg

2010;68(5):1345-1352.

 

This retrospective study evaluated 613 implants  (308 HA-coated and 305 TPS) in 272 patients; the

microanatomy of the two implant types was identical. Patient age, gender, implant diameter, implant length, installation depth, installation location and bone grafting were all recorded. Installation depth had a significant influence on the prognosis of HA-coated implants – failure rates were 3.01% when placed 2 mm below bone level and 10.29% when placed at the level of the bone margin. Similarly, implant length had a significant influence of the prognosis of TPS implants – failure rates were 2.40% for implants ≥ 10 mm in length and 15.46% for implants < 10 mm in length.

 

Nikzad S, Azari A.  Custom-made radiographic template, computed tomography, and computer-assisted

flapless surgery for treatment planning in partial edentulous patients. A prospective 12-month study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010;68(5):1353-1359.

Using a CAD/CAM drill template and a flapless surgical approach, 57 implants were placed in 16 patients

with partially edentulous mandibles. Pain and discomfort were assessed after 2 days and 1 week, and

patient satisfaction and implant functionality were assessed after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Little or no pain was reported. After 12 months, there were two implant failures and the mean mesial and distal bone loss values were 0.6 ± 0.2 mm and 0.5 ± 0.1 mm. CAD/CAM technology and flapless  surgery are therefore suitable techniques for partially edentulous patients.

 

Journal of Oral Implantology

Vol. 36 No. 2 (April 2010)

 

d’Avila S, dos Reis LD, Piattelli A, Aguiar KCS, de Faveri M, Borges FL, Iezzi G, Oliveira NTC, Cardoso

LAdeG, Awad J.  Impact of smoking on human bone apposition at  different dental implant surfaces: a

histologic study in type IV bone. J Oral Implantol 2010;36(2):85-90.

 

Machined and sandblasted/acid-etched microimplants were placed in the posterior maxilla of smokers during conventional surgery and retrieved after 7 months of unloaded healing. Mean BIC was 10.40 ± 14.16% for machined surface implants and 22.19 ± 14.68% for sandblasted/acid-etched implants, indicating that the latter surface gives better results in these patients.

 

Agamy EMTM, Niedermeier W.  Indirect sinus floor elevation for  osseointegrated prostheses. A 10-year

prospective study. J Oral Implantol 2010;36(2):113-121.

 

In 31 patients requiring implants in the posterior maxilla, 47 implants were placed using the indirect/closed sinus floor method and 31 were placed as intra-individual controls. Mean initial bone height was 9.78 ± 1.68 mm and 15.62 ± 1.60 mm for sinus lift and controls, respectively. Patients were recalled every 6 months and radiographs were taken yearly. There was one failure  in the control groups before uncovering; of the 77 implants loaded, five failed between 3 and 59 months. The implant survival rates after 119 months were 93.6% and 90.3% for sinus elevation and control implants, respectively, and there was no significant difference in crestal bone change between the groups.  No sinus problems were observed during the observation period.

Viscioni A, Rigo L, Franco M, Brunelli G, Avantaggiato A, Sollazzo V, Carinci F. Reconstruction of atrophic

jaws using homografts and simultaneous implant placement: a retrospective study.  J Oral Implantol

2010;36(2):131-139.

 

In a retrospective analysis, 48 implants placed simultaneously with fresh frozen bone graft in 17 patients

were evaluated, and the data compared with that from 302 implants placed in fresh frozen bone in a second procedure in 64 patients. Three implants were lost in the simultaneous group, giving an implant survival rate of 93.7%, and prosthetic restoration correlated with significantly reduced crestal bone loss. However, when compared with implants placed in a second stage,  the latter showed better outcomes. Implants placed simultaneously with fresh frozen bone can therefore show high survival and success rates.

Journal of Periodontal Research

Vol. 45 No. 3 (June 2010)

Kotsovilis S, Markou N, Pepelassi E, Nikolodakis D. The adjunctive use of platelet-rich plasma in the therapy of periodontal intraosseous defects: a systematic review. J Periodontal Res 2010;45(3):428-443.

This review intended to evaluate the efficacy of adjunctive PRP in periodontal osseous defects, particularly regarding patients with and without periodontitis. An extensive database and journal search was performed. An initial search gave 6,124 articles, of which  20 were evaluated and 10 randomized controlled trials selected for inclusion. Diverse outcomes were reported, with limited and heterogeneous data. The results suggested that the specific selection of agents/procedures for which PRP can be used as an adjunct may be important.

 

Journal of Periodontology

Vol. 81 No. 4 (April 2010)

Vol. 81 No. 5 (May 2010)

 

Chambrone L, Sukekava F, Araújo MG, Pustiglioni FE, Chambrone LA, Lima LA. Root-coverage procedures

for the treatment of localized recession-type defects. A Cochrane systematic review.  J Periodontol

2010;81(4):452-478.

 

A literature and database search was performed for clinical randomized trials evaluating the effectiveness of different root coverage procedures; 24 trials met the inclusion criteria, most of which (23) were considered to be at high risk of bias – one trial was considered to be at low risk of bias. Gingival recession was significantly reduced and keratinized tissue was significantly gained  for subepithelial connective tissue grafts compared to guided tissue regeneration or bioresorbable membranes, and keratinized tissue gain was significantly greater for enamel matrix proteins than coronally advanced flap. Data on esthetic changes were limited.

 

Javed F, Almas K. Osseointegration of dental implants in patients undergoing bisphosphonate treatment: a literature review. J Periodontol 2010;81(4):479-484.

 

A database literature search was performed for articles on dental implants in patients taking bisphosphonate therapy. A total of 89 articles were identified, of which 12 (seven case reports and five retrospective studies) were selected after screening. Oral bisphosphonates were used in 10 studies, while only two used intravenous bisphosphonates. Successful osseointegration and function of implants was demonstrated in six case reports, and four of the five studies suggested that bisphosphonate therapy did not have a negative influence on implant success. The data therefore suggest that implant can osseointegrate and remain functional in patients taking bisphosphonates.

Santana RB, Furtado MB, Mattos CML, de Mello Fonseca E, Dibart S. Clinical evaluation of single-stage

advanced versus rotated flaps in the treatment of gingival recessions. J Periodontol 2010;81(4):485-492.

 

Miller class I gingival recession defects in 36 patients were treated with either coronally advanced flap or

laterally positioned flap procedures, and clinical parameters assessed at baseline and after 6 months. Similar improvements in percentage root coverage, complete root coverage and gain in clinical attachment level were observed with both procedures, but there were significantly more gains in width of keratinized tissue with laterally positioned flap.

 

Zetterqvist L, Feldman S, Rotter B, Vincenzi G, Wennström JL, Chierico A, Stach RM, Kenealy JM.  A

prospective, multicenter, randomized-controlled 5-year study of hybrid and fully-etched implants for the

incidence of peri-implantitis. J Periodontol 2010;81(4):493-501.

 

Implant sites in 112 patients were randomized to receive either a hybrid dual acid-etched implant with a

machined surface in the coronal region (control, 139 implants) or a fully dual acid-etched implant (test, 165 implants) to support short-span fixed restorations, which were placed 2 months after implant placement. Clinical parameters were assessed annually for up to 5 years. Peri-implantitis was diagnosed at one control implant and was successfully treated. There were no differences in peri-implant mucosal health or signs of peri-implantitis between the groups, indicating that there was no additional risk of peri-implantitis with fully etched implants versus the hybrid implants.

 

Dorn JM, Genco RJ, Grossi SG, Falkner KL, Hovey KM, Iacovello L, Trevisan M. Periodontal disease and

recurrent cardiovascular events in survivors of myocardial infarction (MI): the Western New York acute MI study. J Periodontol 2010;81(4):502-511.

 

A questionnaire on lifestyle habits was completed by 884 participants from two hospitals, and clinical

assessment and dental examination were also performed, with periodontal disease status assessed.

Hospitalizations, medical procedures and cardiovascular events were subsequently evaluated and fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events elucidated. Mean follow-up was 2.9 years, and 154 events were reported. Adjusted hazard ratio for mean clinical attachment loss (marker of periodontal disease status) was 1.43 in never-smokers, but there was no association in ever-smokers. Periodontal disease status may therefore be important in determining recurrent cardiovascular events.

 

Morita T, Yamazaki Y, Mita A, Takada K, Seto M, Nishinoue N, Sasaki Y, Motohashi M, Maeno M. A cohort study on the association between  periodontal disease and the development of metabolic syndrome.  J Periodontol 2010;81(4):512-519.

 

Between 2002 and 2006, medical and dental examination was performed in 1,023 subjects who showed

metabolic syndrome components within the normal range in 2002. There was an association between the presence of periodontal pockets and the conversion of one or more metabolic components, with an odds ratio of 1.4 and 2.2 for the conversion of one component or two or more components, respectively; the difference for two or more components was significant. There was also a significant association between conversion of blood pressure and blood lipid index and  the presence of periodontal pockets. Prevention of periodontal disease may therefore help prevent metabolic syndrome.

 

Shibli JA, Piattelli A, Iezzi G, Cardoso LA, Onuma T, de Carvalho PSP, d’Avila S, Ferrari DS, Mangano C,

Zenóbio EG. Effect of smoking on early bone healing around oxidized surfaces: a prospective, controlled

study in humans. J Periodontol 2010;81(4):575-583.

 

A total of 24 subjects were divided into smokers (13 subjects) and non-smokers (11 subjects) and each

received a microimplant with an oxidized surface. Histomorphometric analysis was performed after 8 weeks. Lack of osseointegration was found for three implants in the smoking group. Mean bone-to-implant contact was 25.97 ± 9.02% and 40.01 ± 12.98% in the smoking and non-smoking groups, respectively, and bone density in the threaded are was 28.17 ± 10.32% and 46.34 ± 19.12%, respectively. Smoking therefore has an adverse influence on early bone tissue response.

 

Zafiropoulos G-GK, Deli G, Bartee BK, Hoffmann O. Single-tooth implant placement and loading in fresh and regenerated extraction sockets. Five-year results: a case series using two different implant designs.  J Periodontol 2010;81(4):604-615.

 

A total of 241 single tapered (n = 118) or cylindrical (n = 123) implants in 241 patients were retrospectively evaluated according to their loading protocol, i.e. immediate, immediate  non-occlusal or delayed. Clinical parameters were evaluated for up to 5 years. There were 11 implant failures (five cylindrical and six tapered) and clinical parameters were similar between both implant types. The results indicated that implant loading time, implant type and implant position do not have a significant influence on survival rate, but there was a slightly lower failure rate with immediate non-occlusal loading.

Jhaveri HM, Chavan MS, Tomar GB, Desmukh VL, Wani MR, Miller PD Jr. Acellular dermal matrix seeded

with autologous gingival fibroblasts for the treatment of gingival recession:  a proof-of-concept study.  J

Periodontol 2010;81(4):616-625.

 

In this study, two sites in each of 10 patients with Miller class I or II recessions were treated with subepithelial connective tissue graft or acellular  dermal matrix (ADM) allograft seeded with gingival fibroblasts. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after 3 and 6  months. No differences in any of the clinical parameters were found, but there was less inflammation at the ADM sites in the early healing period. ADM seeded with gingival fibroblasts may therefore be an alternative to subepithelial connective tissue graft for the treatment of gingival recession.

 

 

Lopes BMV, Theodoro LH, Melo RF, de Azedevo Thompson GM, Marcantonio RAC.  Clinical and

microbiologic follow-up evaluations after non-surgical periodontal treatment with erbium:YAG laser and

scaling and root planing. J Periodontol 2010;81(5):682-691.

 

Periodontal pockets of 5-9 mm in 19 patients were treated with scaling and root planing, Er:YAG laser, a

combination of both or neither Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after 1, 3, 6 and 12

months, and gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque samples were

additionally assessed after 12 days. GI decreased in  the combination group but increased in the other

groups after 12 days; the difference was significant. After 3, 6 and 12 months, GI significantly decreased in both scaling and root planing groups. There was a significant decrease in BOP and a significant increase in clinical attachment level after 3, 6 and 12 months in all treated groups, the percentage of sites with bacteria was reduced in both laser groups at 6 and 12 months. Laser treatment may therefore be an alternative to conventional treatment for the control of bacteria in periodontitis.

Silva CO, Del Peloso Ribeiro É, Sallum AW, Tatakis DN. Free gingival grafts: graft shrinkage and donor-site healing in smokers and non-smokers. J Periodontol 2010;81(5):692-701.

 

Free gingival graft was performed in 12 non-smoking and 10 smoking patients. Clinical parameters and graft dimension were evaluated were assessed at baseline and after 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. The width, length and area of the free gingival graft were reduced by 31%, 22% and 44%, respectively in non-smokers and by 44%, 25% and 58%, respectively, in smokers. Keratinized tissue was significantly increased in both groups, but donor-site immediate bleeding was more prevalent in non-smokers; however, donor site complete epithelialization was significantly more prevalent in non-smokers after 15 days. Free gingival graft healing is affected by smoking, but there is no significant effect on graft dimensional changes.

 

Valderrama P, Jung RE, Thoma DS, Jones AA, Cochran DL. Evaluation of parathyroid hormone bound to a

synthetic matrix for guided bone regeneration around dental implants: a histomorphometric study in dogs. J Periodontol 2010;81(5):737-747.  

 

Critical-sized circumferential defects were created in the mandibles of six dogs before implant placement. The sites were then treated with 1) PEG, 2) PEG + RGD, 3) PEG + PTH or 4) PEG + RGD + PTH. The percentages of new bone formation were 12.43%, 15.95%, 15.32% and 16.60% for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively after 2 weeks and 30-01%, 27.90%, 29.89% and 27.58%, respectively, after 4 weeks. The difference was marginally significant between group 4 and group 1 at 2 weeks but not 4 weeks. No significant differences were observed for BIC.

 

Fanali S, Perrotti V, Riccardi L, Piattelli A, Piccirilli M, Ricci L, Artese L.  Inflammatory infiltrate, microvessel density, vascular endothelial growth factor, nitric oxide  synthase, and proliferative  activity in soft tissues below intraorally welded titanium bars. J Periodontol 2010;81(5):748-757.

 

Two gingival biopsies were taken from each of 22  patients with immediately loaded one-stage titanium

implants splinted with intraorally welded titanium bars; one biopsy was taken from the mucosa below the bar (test) and the other was taken from the mucosa 5 mm away (control). There were no differences in clinical parameters and no framework fractures or alterations. Inflammatory infiltrate was mostly found at test sites and was greater than at control sites. Microvessel density and Ki-67 expression were also significantly different between test and control sites, with high intensity VEGF, NOS-1 and -3 synthase expression at the test sites. The results therefore indicate a higher rate of inflammatory and reparative processes in the tissues below the bars.

 

Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology

Vol. 109 No. 5 (May 2010)

Vol. 109 No. 6 (June 2010)

 

Lindfors LTR, Tervonen EAT, Sándor GKB, Ylikontiola LP.  Guided bone regeneration using a titanium-

reinforced ePTFE membrane and particulate autogenous bone: the effect of smoking and membrane

exposure. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010;109(5):825-830.

 

Bone augmentation was performed using autogenous particulate graft and titanium-reinforced ePTFEmembranes in 27 cases. Of these, 85% (23) were successful and 15% (four) were not. The success rate insmokers was 63%, compared to 95% in non-smokers. Membrane exposure occurred in four cases but did not affect the outcome. Ten (37%) of the augmented sites showed signs of tissue inflammation, and was significantly more prevalent in  smokers (75%). The technique is therefore useful, but poor treatment outcomes are more likely in smoking patients.

Qu Z, Laky M, Ulm C, Matejka M, Dard M, Andrukhov O, Rausch-Fan X. Effect of Emdogain on proliferation and migration of different periodontal tissue-associated cells. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010;109(5):924-931.

 

The proliferation, viability and cell migration of alveolar osteoblasts, epithelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were evaluated in the presence of Emdogain. Emdogain significantly stimulated proliferation and viability, in a direct relationship with the amount of Emdogain present. Cell migration was also stimulated in osteoblasts and endothelial cells, depending on the amount of Emdogain, but migration in epithelial cells was stimulated only with < 50 μg/ml Emdogain. The results may correspond to an underlying mechanism for the promotion of periodontal regeneration.

 

Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews

Vol. 16 No. 2 (April 2010)

 

Chen F-M, Jin Y.  Periodontal tissue engineering and regeneration: current approaches and expanding

opportunities. Tiss Eng B Rev 2010;16(2):219-255.

 

A range of materials and surgical techniques are currently in use to accelerate and augment periodontal

tissue and bone regeneration, and tissue engineering methods have also been developed and employed.

The principles of engineering and life sciences are applied to restore alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum. However, techniques and designs for preclinical and clinical studies are still in the early stages. The reconstruction of small-to-moderate sized bone defects is possible, and may in the future lead to alternative to existing clinical techniques, but predictable reconstruction of structure and functionality is still a challenge. Current regenerative procedures are explored in this review, together with their development and difficulties in clinical practice.

 

 

 


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